عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
One of the main features of decoration in different works of art in the late 12th and early13th centuries Iran (coincident with Seljuk and Ilkhanid periods) and the connected cultures is the variety of subjects applied in different representations, including power iconography, royal pleasures, special mythical creatures and cosmic symbols. Enjoying distinctive iconographical characteristics, a small group of pictures and images here represent mythical and legendary stories displaying Persian heroic exploits like those of Bahram and Azadeh, Faridun and Zahhak, and Bijan and Manijeh. The scene of taking Zahhak to Mount Damavand by Faridun is a theme represented and reproduced in many images (e.g. wall paintings, pottery and metalwork objects) in the 12th and 13th centuries. In addition to Shahnamah (The Book of the Kings), this subject has been proposed in most of the historical and literal works. Aiming to find the referential source of images with the presence of Persian historical and legendary characters, this research tries to answer the question that whether such images have come out of Shahnamah and other historical works or just been under the influenced of oral references? In order to achieve this goal, the research has firstly been dedicated to the examination of Faridun and Zahhak's manners in Avesta, Middle Persian (Pahlavi) and Islamic texts as well as the study of the narratives of Faridun's victory over Zahhak in such texts. Having emphasized on the prominent symbols and features of each character, the pottery works containing the scenes of taking Zahhak to Mount Damavand by Faridun are introduced. Finally, the narrative source of images has been analyzed by searching historical and literal works as well as the probable influence of oral narratives. The required information in this research has been gathered through library sources and documents and the method is based on historical- analytical approach. None of the written narratives in this study conform with the mentioned paintings, however some similarities are observed in some details. Meanwhile, Shahnamah as an authentic historical reference book has increased the importance of this matter for illustration. Other texts have also had a big part in this influence. In some of them we witness details that are not even in the Shahnamah, but they conform with some of the elements in images (for example, referring to Fereydun's riding a cow in Athar al-Baqiya, Farsnamah, Gardizi History and Tabarestan History). Furthermore, the probable influence of oral narratives is also felt as much as that of the written ones. A proof for this matter is the Shahnamah of narrators where common points with these images are seen. This subject confirms the theory that the artists in that period had used their mind and memory in illustrating this narrative. We eventually come to the conclusion that these paintings do not show only a definite or limited part of the victory of Faridun over Zahhak, but they are the summary of the whole story being an implication of the concept of victory, a result that could be generalized to other related pictures and images.