عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The importance of turquoise color in ancient ideologies encouraged craftsmen to build objects in that color. Turquoise stones have been admired by Persians and Egyptians since antiquity, bearing a symbolic meaning due to their color. Examination of a number of ancient Egyptian turquoise faience works reveals a remarkable similarity between their methods of production with those of the Persian Kharmohreh (handmade glass/ceramic beads). Over the past decades, the Persian Kharmohreh and similar works in ancient Egypt have attracted the attention of an unprecedented number of researchers as a result of archaeological discoveries, but a comparison has yet to be made between the two. In the present study, carried out in historical - comparative methodology by using desk and field research techniques, such areas as creation time, production methods, and discovery sites of these works were taken into account in Persian and Egyptian cultures. Comparison of these artifacts pointed to their long-lasting history in both civilizations. However, no conclusive evidence was found regarding the Iranian influence on corresponding Egyptian artifacts or vice versa. The artifacts of both civilizations included ornamental beads, amulets, talismans, vessels, figurines, mascots, and wall tiles. However, cylindrical seals and personal adornment such as rings were produced exclusively in Persia and Egypt, respectively. These products were made to imitate turquoise stones and were, respectively, associated with the Persian deity, Tishtrya, and the Egyptian goddess, Hathor. The main element of silica and the use of alkali compounds for glazing was the common feature in these works, while other similarities in the glazing compounds and glazing methods were also distinguished.