عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The establishment of Safavid dynasty in Iran and the prevalence of etiquettes attributed to Sufis required making kashkuls (Sufi begging bowl), as one of the qalandars’ and dervishes’ instruments used at ceremonies and related events of such a sect. The purpose of this study is to study the form and content of 34 metal kashkuls from the Safavid as well as the following era, Qajar. Here there are some questions to answer: What kind of interaction exists between the decorative elements of such kashkuls and the dervishes’ manners? And how are the metal kashkuls from these eras made in terms of form, function and symbol? Data of the present research has been gathered from library sources and by referring and accessing to the world museums’ sites as well as visiting national museums inside. The results are as follows: Dervishes always carried kashkul for making request from others while they sang mystic poems in markets and alleys, which were considered both a Sufi propaganda and an experience of self-humiliation. The costly kashkuls, including metal types, carried symbolic, ritual, and decorative aspects. Early samples were made of natural material. Later, other forms, including the metal type, became popular.
Besides being regarded as the instruments of dervishes and qalandars, Kashkuls have also been used at Ashura (tenth day of Muharram month) as well as in the water-carrying ritual and mourning ceremonies of this historical event. In the dervishes’ poems, kashkul is related to Abbas ibn-e Ali, a standard bearer (flag bearer) in Karbala. It is also used in mourning ceremonies relating to the same water-carrying ritual. Some poems on kashkuls have direct reference to water-carrying and the blessing of drinking water from the instrument. Furthermore, in both two eras, water-carrying in traditional Iraq was common to Sufism.
It is to be mentioned that there were three forms of kashkul in terms of appearance in the Safavid and Qajar era: 1. Those inspired by the plant type (coco de mer fruit); 2. Those in the form of a vessel (ship); 3. The ones which are distinctive in their overall form and unique decorations. They have been decorated with pictogram inscriptions, Shiite themes and Persian poems. These Kashkuls are engraved with a variety of inscriptions including surahs or selected Quranic verses, Salavāt-e Tafziliyyah (praising and greeting of the Fourteen Innocent Imams) indicating the Shiite tendencies, Persian poetic verses relating to honor the dervishes’ believes and Kashkul’s maker, as well as other poems on the function of the instrument in carrying water. They also have historical inscriptions which refer to the maker and the making date.
Decorative ornaments on Kashkuls include human, geometric, zoomorphic and vegetal designs. The techniques used here are etching, niello, gold blocking of steel, engraving, latticework and inlay with symbols such as dragons, ships, fish and snakes. Furthermore, the ship or vessel, which is the general form of some Kashkuls, has been inspired by the hadith of the Noah's ship (the Rescue Ship) mentioned in the Sufi texts in this way. Some motifs such as dragons, fish and snakes are also to be found in the pre-Islamic or Islamic times, or we can consider the implications of such artistic inspirations taking their semantic aspects in literature and mysticism into consideration. It indicates that such elements and subjects have been influential on the beliefs and ideals of dervishes.