عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The Safavid kings had a fairly influential role in Iran’s cultural, economic and social prosperity after a long era of turmoil and recession. The art of weaving silk fabrics is one of the examples that grew up in light of the attention and support of the Safavid officials. During the Achaemenid era, Iranians were aware of the mystery of silkworm and silk threads that came from China to Iran. Such a material was converted to woolen fabrics, colorful flax and silk textiles in weaving centers such as Balkh, Hamadan and Shushtar. In any case, it is certain that silk came from China to Iran. It should also be noted that the life of such products in Iran was much shorter than that of other fibers, but the taste and skills of the Iranian and the use of the designs by creative painters as well as the growing support of the royal court brought about the creation of great masterpieces. Such woven fabrics were not only attractive as gifts, but also as ceremonial and basic commodities for the evaluation of other products. The Safavid kings actually supported this craftsmanship, and they regarded this material as the majesty of their kingdom and glory.
Another important feature in the Safavid era was the creation of artistic centers under the authority of the court and the close connection between miniature painting and textiles. Recognizing how silk weaving developed in the Safavid era helps us understand this industry better. Therefore, the present study investigates the weaving of such fabrics under the full support of the officials of the Safavid dynasty through a descriptive-analytical methodology.
The questions to be answered in this research are as follows: How did the support of the aristocracy and the princes of Safavids lead to the development of silk industry in this period? How did the events during the Safavid era affect the development of the fabrics? The statistical population of this study consists of 13 samples of Safavid silk fabrics collected from select collections and museums abroad.
The results indicate that the tendency of the Safavid kings to revive the glory of ancient Iran and the ambitions of officials and the elite, as well as the needs of the domestic and foreign markets added to the prosperity of silk weaving at that time. In the meantime, Shāh Abbās’s role was most influential in raising the quality and quantity of silk, and by his full support and, of course, the export of such woven fabrics, besides patronizing this traditional art, he managed to add to his country’s credit and wealth. Here some factors are considered so important in the growth and development of this industry, namely the domestic, regional and international realtions.