عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Throughout history, artworks in the field of metalwork and glasswork reflect different themes. They are considered as important means of manifesting Islamic art and traditional crafts in different countries which have been producing a wide variety of art products. Meanwhile, the influence of some kinds of artworks from different lands and the counterinfluence of concepts and artistic themes among them can be pinpointed in the works that have various common features as a result of common cultural and historical movements.
Describing the characteristics of Iranian metalwork in the Ilkhanid and Timurid eras and enameled glass in the Mamluk period, this paper seeks to find decorative motifs and common elements and distinguishing features in such works. The paper studies these motifs in a specific geographical and historical span via an analytical methodology. To do this, some metal objects in Iran and enameled glasses from the Mamluk period in Egypt and Syria have been selected. Having conducted a comparative study of the motifs, their details are examined afterwards. The research method in here is descriptive-analytical and is implemented by visual examination of three kinds of recurring decorative patterns in enameled glasses and objects of metalwork.
The present research is investigating common features and differences between Ilkhanid and Timurid metal objects on the one hand, and the glasses of Mamluk period on the other, as well as the degree of influence each of them has had on each other. Furthermore, the human, vegetal, and calligraphic motifs decorating the objects and the type of relationship between the object and decorative patterns have also been studied. The comparative findings demonstrate that Iranian artistic motifs and themes can obviously be seen in Egyptian and Syrian decorations. Common religious and ritual features in addition to cultural and political factors have had great impacts on the manifestation of such common features.
In 7th AH / 13th AD century a large number of metalworking centers in Iran were moved to Syria, Mosul, Anatolia and Egypt. Patterns formed in the memory of artists were transferred to industries such as glassmaking, and in accordance with governmental influences, developments and thematic appropriations are also seen in the motifs. Commissioned works were mostly produced for courtiers and were accompanied by words praising governmental officials. Most decorative motifs include khatai, human, zoomorphic, geometric and inscriptive ones. Calligraphic inscriptions and verses from the Holy Quran are the elements seen on enameled and gilded glasses of the Mamluks, and so are the Quranic verses and the praising of the ruler in the Ilkhanid and Timurid metalwork inscribed in Naskh and Thuluth scripts. The floral motifs include various and symmetrical arabesques, and the human themes often include feasting, battle, and hunting scenes, which we can see in detail many similarities among the studied works. Finally, it can be said that the transfer of culture and art has depended on the influence governments gained from past times as well as cultural, social and political movements evolved in specific ways in different lands.