عنوان مقاله [English]
Iran and India enjoy a long history of cultural interactions. Meanwhile, the migration of many Safavid artists and elites to the Mughal court, and the promotion of the Persian language in India are marked as turning points in the history of Indo-Iranian cultural relations. Iranian migrant painters had a privileged position in the Mughal court by creating many works and educating many apprentices. Considering the works of Iranian immigrant artists in the Mughal court as an intercultural text, this study has tried to examine the Mughal court painting thorough intercultural semiotics. The main purpose is to find the Mughal approach in cultural relations with Iran and to identify the limits and roles of each culture involved in these interactions. For this purpose, samples of the works of Iranian painters or projects under their supervision in the Mughal court were studied with a cultural, semiotic approach. The Mughal fascination with Iranian culture and art at the Indian court provided favorable conditions for the influence of Iranian artists, elements and compositions. Furthermore, the Mughal painting is considered much more naturalistic than its Persian counterpart.
As a result, the Mughal tried to emphasize their difference from Hindu culture, as “the other”, by idealizing Persian culture, which at that time had immense popularity and position in the Islamic world. This process did not lead to the complete absorption of Persian culture and the total rejection of Hindu culture in Mughal paintings; hence, the elements of Indian painting in Mughal art were still visible. Mughal painting is an intercultural text in which Iranian culture and consequently Mongol culture (due to its identification with Iranian culture) is centralized and the Hindu culture left to the sideline. Yet, this text reclaims its identity from the constant interchange of the center’s and margin’s borders.